Chapter 7.C.3† Pregnant Women and Drug Use
Notes: Maternal Substance Abuse
2. Two Views on Legislative Intent.
The South Carolina Supreme Court found that McKnight had received ineffective assistance of counsel and reversed her conviction in 2008. State v. McKnight, 661 S.E.2d 354 (S.C., 2008).
3. The Constitution and the Prosecution of Pregnant Women.
For commentary on the issues see Michele Goodwin, Prosecuting the Womb, 76 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 1657 (2008); Julie B. Ehrlich, Breaking the Law by Giving Birth: The War on Drugs, the War on Reproductive Rights, and the War on Women, 32 N.Y.U. Rev. & Soc. Change 381 (2008); April L. Cherry, The Detention, Confinement, and Incarceration of Pregnant Women for the Benefit of Fetal Health, 16 Colum. J. Gender & L. 147 (2007); Meghan Horn, Note: Mothers Versus Babies: Constitutional and Policy Problems with Prosecutions for Prenatal Maternal Substance Abuse, 14 Wm. & Mary J. Women & L. 635 (2008); and Ian Vandewalker, Taking the Baby Before Itís Born: Termination of the Parental Rights of Women Who Use Illegal Drugs While Pregnant, 32 N.Y.U. Rev. L. & Soc. Change 423 (2008).
For a discussion of the disproportionate impact of state policies on minority women, see Joanne E. Brosh & Monica Miller, Regulating Pregnancy Behavior: How the Constitutional Rights of Minority Women Are Disproportionately Compromised, 16 Am. U. J. Gender Soc. Pol'y & L. 437 (2008).
5.† The Criminal Model v. the Treatment Model.
For a discussion of the therapeutic approach to the drug abuse problem, see Elizabeth E. Coleman & Monica K. Miller, Assessing Legal Responses to Prenatal Drug Use: Can Therapeutic Responses Produce More Positive Outcomes Than Punitive Responses?, 20 J.L. & Health 35 (2007).
For a comparative examination of criminal prosecution of pregnant women between the US, Canada and France, see Linda C. Fentiman, Pursuing the Perfect Mother: Why Americaís Criminalization of Maternal Substance Abuse is Not the Answer - A Comparative Legal Analysis, 15 Mich. J. Gender & L. 389 (2009).